Anno di corso: 1

Anno di corso: 2

Crediti: 6
Crediti: 12
Tipo: A scelta dello studente
Crediti: 6
Tipo: A scelta dello studente
Crediti: 12
Tipo: A scelta dello studente
Crediti: 28
Tipo: Lingua/Prova Finale
Crediti: 4
Tipo: Altro

BIODIVERSITY AND MARINE ECOLOGY

Scheda dell'insegnamento

Anno accademico di regolamento: 
2018/2019
Anno di corso: 
1
Anno accademico di erogazione: 
2018/2019
Tipo di attività: 
Obbligatorio
Lingua: 
Inglese
Crediti: 
12
Ciclo: 
Primo Semestre
Ore di attivita' didattica: 
104

Moduli

Metodi di valutazione

Modalita' di verifica dell'apprendimento: 

ASSESMENT METHOD
Oral examination

Valutazione: 
Voto Finale

Obiettivi formativi

AIMS

This course examines biological aspects of ocean ecosystems and the physical processes that regulate them. Topics include the distributions, abundances, and interactions of marine organisms; interactions between organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter in marine ecosystems; and aspects of physiology related to marine species distributions, abundances and roles. Lectures facilitate understanding 1) the complex nature of the process that affect and control marine biodiversity; 2) become familiar with multiple definitions and measures of marine biodiversity; 3) identify threats to marine biodiversity and what mechanisms are developing to identify and manage biodiversity loss; 4) of the impact and rapid spread of non-indigenous marine species, methods of introduction and spread, and current control measures; 5) gain knowledge of how major fisheries management programs relate to biodiversity loss and conservation. 6) measure the success/failure of current action strategies, such as Marine Protected Areas, by applying lessons learned and incorporation of emerging methods and data sources.

Contenuti

CONTENTS

COURSE PART I - BIODIVERSITY
Introduction to Marine Biodiversity; Biodiversity of Plankton, Benthos and Nekton; Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Marine Biodiversity; Global threats and for global Biodiversity and Anthropogenic Impacts; Coral Reef's biodiversity; Marine fisheries and Biodiversity.

COURSE PART II - MARINE ECOLOGY
Processes of Marine Organisms and Systems, Primary Production in Marine Environments, Structure and Dynamics of Marine Communities, Functioning of Marine Ecosystems

Programma esteso

DETAILED PROGRAM

COURSE PART I - BIODIVERSITY

1- Introduction to Marine Biodiversity

Definition of Biodiversity , Who “owns” Biodiversity? How is it measured and why is it important: Genetic diversity; how is it defined/measured? genes, populations; Species diversity; how is it defined/measured?; Ecosystem diversity; Functional diversity; The magnitude of the known marine biodiversity

2- Marine Biodiversity – Plankton, benthos, nekton

Planktonic diversity classification by size, distribution, lifestyle, general description of the realm, major taxa, magnitude of diversity and biodiversity functioning; Benthos diversity classification by size, distribution, habitat, lifestyle, feeding behaviour. General description of the realm, major taxa, magnitude of diversity and biodiversity functioning; Nekton diversity classification by, size, distribution, habitat, lifestyle, feeding behaviour. General description of the realm, major taxa, magnitude of diversity and biodiversity functioning

3- Spatial and Temporal pattern of Marine Biodiversity and Conservation of the Ocean

Spatial and temporal patterns

Factor in Biodiversity (speciation-extinction); Biogeographic factors; Major gradient of species diversity (latitudinal, longitudinal, bathymetric); Explanation of regional diversity differences; Expansion and Extinction in the Past; How extinctions change biodiversity: (a) Two kinds of extinctions; natural, induced – extinction rate-(b) The implications of extinction-(c) Earth's past mass extinction events - (d) The current mass extinction event - (e) Generalizations we can draw from past extinction events

Conservation of marine biodiversity

Value of Marine Biodiversity; Why is important? Ecosystem function and services; The shifting baseline concept; What is an endangered species; The IUCN red list; CITES; Conservation strategies (MPAs)

4- Global Threats for Global Biodiversity and Anthropogenic Impacts

Threats to Marine Biodiversity

Human effects on Marine Environment; Pollution (toxic metals, pesticides, herbicides); the problem of the Plastic; Biological Invasion; Nutrients and Eutrophication; Global Environmental Change and the Ocean

The Hidden Diversity of the Coral Reef

The Holobiont (members and habitats); The coral probiotic Hypothesis; The Hologenome theory of evolution; The coral Symbiome; Impact of Environmental stress on the coral Symbiome

The coral diseases

Terminology and definitions; History and actual distribution; Koch’s postulates; Skeleton Eroding Band, Brown Band Disease, White Syndrome, Ulcerative White Spot, Black Band Disease, Tumors; Divers of coral disease outbreaks; Vectors and Reservoirs; Management issue and Actions

5- Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity

Fisheries and food from the Sea

What is a fishery; Stock - a key concept; Fishing techniques and their effects (Longline fishery, Purse seine, Trawls, Gill nets); Magnitude and Impacts

Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity – Overfishing

Definitions; Vulnerable resource species; The case: Terranova Grand banks; The impact of the overfishing; The case of Tuna fisheries; The waste; The food fraud; Illegality: shark finning, flag of convenience, IUU definitions

Marine Fisheries and Biodiversity – Fishing Management

Aged-based population; Closures and quotas- quotas and Individual transferable quotas; Mariculture; MPAs;

The roles of consumers

COURSE PART II - MARINE ECOLOGY

Processes in Marine Ecosystem

Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology

Ecological interactions; Interactions on the scale of individuals; The population level; The community level: structure and interspecies interactions; The ecosystem level

The Chemical and Physical Environment

Measures of physiological performance; Temperature; Salinity; Oxygen; Light

Reproduction, Dispersal, and Migration

Ecological and evolutionary factors in sex; Reproduction, demography, and life cycles; Migration; Larval dispersal at different scales

Primary Production P

Bibliografia consigliata

TEXTBOOK AND TEACHING RESOURCE

- Power point presentations

- Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology (3°edition). Jeffrey S. Levinton, Oxford University Press

- Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts (2° edition). Michel J. Kaiser et al., Oxford University Press

- Scientific Papers

Metodi didattici

TEACHING FORM

COURSE PART I - BIODIVERSITY

- Lessons: 4 credits

- Tutorials: 2 credits

COURSE PART II - MARINE ECOLOGY

- Lessons: 4 credits

- Tutorials: 2 credits