Anno di corso: 1

Anno di corso: 2

Crediti: 12
Tipo: A scelta dello studente
Crediti: 30
Tipo: Lingua/Prova Finale
Crediti: 3
Tipo: Altro
Crediti: 3
Tipo: Altro

PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS

Scheda dell'insegnamento

Anno accademico di regolamento: 
2018/2019
Anno di corso: 
1
Anno accademico di erogazione: 
2018/2019
Tipo di attività: 
Obbligatorio a scelta
Lingua: 
Inglese
Crediti: 
6
Ciclo: 
Secondo Semestre
Ore di attivita' didattica: 
52
Prerequisiti: 

Quantum Mechanics. Solid State Physics.

Moduli

Metodi di valutazione

Tipo di esame: 
Orale
Modalita' di verifica dell'apprendimento: 

Oral exam

Valutazione: 
Voto Finale

Obiettivi formativi

The main objective of the course is to provide an overview of the subject and a solid background for further specialization in the area of electronics and optoelectronics, sensors, energy harvesting and production, and supervised laboratory research. After a summary of technologically relevant materials and their properties and a reminder of solid-state physics concepts, such as crystal structure, lattice vibrations and band structure, semiconductor specific topics such as effective mass and its experimental determination, k dot p perturbation method, point defects and their structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties, charge statistic in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, optical properties, charge transport, semiconductors in equilibrium and non- equilibrium conditions will be presented as the core of the course.

For the interested reader some additional topics (nanoelectronic, spintronics, 2D materials for example) are included to offer an overview of some highlights in semiconductor physics current trends and stimulate further reading. To follow efficiently the course pre-existing knowledge in quantum mechanics and solid-state physics is necessary.

Contenuti

Semiconductor physics: electronic, optical, and transport properties.

Programma esteso

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE

Band structure, effective mass and its experimental determination k dot p method: conduction band, valence band, spin-orbit interaction,

Point defects: structure, thermodynamics, vibrational properties, electronic properties, dopants; intrinsic defects; impurities; complex defects.

"Shallow" defects: effective mass theory. Mott tansition. High concentration effects.

"Deep" defects: Green’s function approach.

Introduction to some experimental techniques for the study of defects: electron spin resonance (EPR), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS).

STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTIONS

Statistics; thermodynamics; density of states; distribution of holes and electrons; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, chemical potential and Fermi level.

OPTICAL PROPERTIES

Photon-electron interaction; band-band absorption; excitons; absorption of free carriers; reflectivity; impurities. Optical spectroscopy of impurities and dopants (Raman, Photoluminescence, Photoionization).

TRANSPORT PROPERTIES

Macroscopic quantities characterizing charge transport. Boltzmann equation; distribution function; charge transport; scattering processes, relaxation time approximation. Hall effect, magnetoresistance, effects of high electric field (hot carriers), negative differential resistance, Gunn effect. Semiconductors in equilibrium and non-equilibrium. Recombination of charges, drift and diffusion. Spin-dependent transport.

NANOSTRUCTURES

Two-, one-, and zero-dimensional structures and related electronic properties, 2D systems (graphene, silicene, dicalcogenides of transition metals).

Bibliografia consigliata

- M. Balkanski and R.F. Wallis, Semiconductor Physics and Applications (Oxford) [Ch.: 1, 2, 3(1,4,5,6,7), 4, 5, 6, 8, 10(1,2,3,4,8), 20(4)]

- M. Grundmann, The Physics of Semiconductors: An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics, Springer

- Teacher's notes and slides

- Additional materials for specific topics

Modalità di erogazione

Convenzionale

Metodi didattici

Lectures and exercises in the classroom.