PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS
Quantum Mechanics. Solid State Physics.
The main objective of the course is to provide an overview of the subject and a solid background for further specialization in the area of electronics and optoelectronics, sensors, energy harvesting and production, and supervised laboratory research. After a summary of technologically relevant materials and their properties and a reminder of solid-state physics concepts, such as crystal structure, lattice vibrations and band structure, semiconductor specific topics such as effective mass and its experimental determination, k dot p perturbation method, point defects and their structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties, charge statistic in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, optical properties, charge transport, semiconductors in equilibrium and non- equilibrium conditions will be presented as the core of the course.
For the interested reader some additional topics (nanoelectronic, spintronics, 2D materials for example) are included to offer an overview of some highlights in semiconductor physics current trends and stimulate further reading. To follow efficiently the course pre-existing knowledge in quantum mechanics and solid-state physics is necessary.
Semiconductor physics: electronic, optical, and transport properties.
Band structure, effective mass and its experimental determination k dot p method: conduction band, valence band, spin-orbit interaction,
Point defects: structure, thermodynamics, vibrational properties, electronic properties, dopants; intrinsic defects; impurities; complex defects.
"Shallow" defects: effective mass theory. Mott tansition. High concentration effects.
"Deep" defects: Green’s function approach.
Introduction to some experimental techniques for the study of defects: electron spin resonance (EPR), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS).
Statistics; thermodynamics; density of states; distribution of holes and electrons; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, chemical potential and Fermi level.
Photon-electron interaction; band-band absorption; excitons; absorption of free carriers; reflectivity; impurities. Optical spectroscopy of impurities and dopants (Raman, Photoluminescence, Photoionization).
Macroscopic quantities characterizing charge transport. Boltzmann equation; distribution function; charge transport; scattering processes, relaxation time approximation. Hall effect, magnetoresistance, effects of high electric field (hot carriers), negative differential resistance, Gunn effect. Semiconductors in equilibrium and non-equilibrium. Recombination of charges, drift and diffusion. Spin-dependent transport.
Two-, one-, and zero-dimensional structures and related electronic properties, 2D systems (graphene, silicene, dicalcogenides of transition metals).
- M. Balkanski and R.F. Wallis, Semiconductor Physics and Applications (Oxford) [Ch.: 1, 2, 3(1,4,5,6,7), 4, 5, 6, 8, 10(1,2,3,4,8), 20(4)]
- M. Grundmann, The Physics of Semiconductors: An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics, Springer
- Teacher's notes and slides
- Additional materials for specific topics
Lectures and exercises in the classroom.